For over 2 decades, the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Directed Energy Directorate who leads the Department of Defense (DOD) in electro-optical sensing and high performance computing has successfully operated, upgraded and strengthened the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing (AMOS) Site in the Lipoa Community.
On May 26, 2022 AMOS transitioned into the 15th Squadron of the US Space Force and will operate as a hybrid R&D and operational site executing a mix of research, operations, and customer program support for the SDA mission.
The DoD began conducting research and development and operational missions on Haleakala, Maui in the 1960’s at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Midcourse Observation Station, which is known today as the Maui Space Surveillance Complex (MSSC) located at Lipoa. 
 Originally built as an electro-optical observation platform for missile tests, the site has evolved into a world-class observatory supporting missions in space control, laser propagation, and other related fields.